Brand, AKA the DNA of a Trademark part 2

The second part of my analysis on Brand 🙂

According to L. De Chernatony, M. McDonald, three levels of brand can be distinguished:

  • expected
  • extended
  • potential

The main functions of the brand are:

  • identifying – it is to distinguish a product from competing products, 
  • guarantee – the brand guarantees a certain level of quality, communicates professionalism,  
  • promotional – is designed to attract the attention of customers, arouse the desire to purchase 

Wally Olins in his book: „On Branding” points out that brands mean, first of all, image – it is not only their own but also, ours, the consumers. The brand’s style is part of the customer’s lifestyle. Companies, choosing their audience, create an ideal persona, through marketing messages convey values that are important to that group. To which they choose marketing messages. Different qualities, social status, values will be represented by those who shop at H&M than those who choose GAP every day. Brands are meant to seduce Customers, to show them that their product or service is the forbidden fruit, the more something is unavailable the more Consumers want to have it. In branding it is worth leaving room for mystery, the recipe for Coca-Cola is known by two people in the world, a similar mystery is the famous KFC coating. Branding, or branding emphasizes: a sense of: belonging, purpose, drawing strength from the actions of opponents, authenticity, consistency, perfect world, impact on the senses, rituals, symbols, mystery. 

Brands act on emotions, build a sense of belonging. They create a social glue that allows customers to get along and make them feel as part of an elite group. Wanting to keep their customers, companies hold product or service presentations, trade shows, training sessions, conferences where all attention is focused on the brand. Users are locked for a few hours in the created world of a particular product. Brands give a sense of mission, fulfillment of purpose, proclaiming „good news” not only about products but also, vision, CSR programs. Apple encourages its future and current customers to: „Think different”, in addition to technological gadgets at the core of the brand is a philosophy, it directs the lives of customers. Christof Koch a prominent neuroscientist, dedicated to Apple, has a tattoo in the shape of a bitten apple, which he did during an archaeological trip to israel. He embodies the slogan „Think differently” with his actions. Aplle or Microsoft, Burger King or McDonald’s, Pepsi or Coca-Cola are just examples of brands that have a circle of loyal customers, uniting them under a common logo. The consistency of the brand’s offerings will help the brand to be perceived as stable. Customers who have already trusted the brand and built a relationship with it will find it hard to accept changes such as: rebranding. The attribute of stability is then violated. Manufacturers wanting to preserve their uniqueness warn their customers against counterfeits. During the Sydney Olympics, the organizers, in order to prevent fakes, created Brand DNA. DNA material was taken from athletes, duplicated and mixed with ink, which was used to produce official gadgets with the Olympic Games logo.

[1] Martin Lindstrom, „Brand sense Marka pięciu zmysłów”